Mask None's in integer fields with different values using a dictionary. The standard also defines how a client can request. Yissechar Ber Eilenberg cites the following from his teacher R. In the ArcGIS Image Analyst module, several new ArcPy functions are available for creating raster objects that support multidimensional data. The Row object dynamically support field names from the data source as read/write properties. I have an attribute table looks like this How do I convert Nulls into 0? I've tried to set this table non nullable type but got this: while the official doc says this: At least one of them is w. To allow for deletion at a later time set the field to non-required (the default). Tool functions will always return a Result object and provide geoprocessing messages support. The returned value of a non-tool function can be varied—anything from strings to geoprocessing objects. searchcursor(FC, query). By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. The ArcPy mapping module provides functionality for working with the map document and the objects it contains. In order to return a Layer object, an index value must be used on the list (e. Tomaro has participated in all phases of Systems Development Life Cycle and prides himself in providing innovative solutions to solve any challenges put on his path. Python Map Automation - Beyond the Basics of arcpy. I know that it is empty because the query failsi. For a scripting need, I would advise Javascript or Python. The function arcpy. It's a great thing to use in IDLE when writing a python script and you forget what variables go where. This week, however, I had to implement a facet of arcpy that I had not yet had the opportunity to utilise – the data access module. They are extracted from open source Python projects. InsertCursor) were introduced with ArcGIS 10. Using ArcPy with Visual Studio 2010 and 2012 ArcPy has been commonly used by the GIS community with PythonWin. ArcPy data access function for converting a feature class to a NumPy structured array. A collection of script tools to supplement Spatial Analyst Tools. MapDocument(r"C:\Project\ParcelAtlas. SearchCursor, arcpy. BlackBox13 performing on The Morning Blend to promote the release of their debut EP "Army of None" and their CD Release show at Count's Vamp'd on Friday, November 23, 2012. The original cursors are provided only for continuing. Greg has 16 jobs listed on their profile. Get a List of Unique Attribute Values using Arcpy written by Eric Pimpler September 12, 2017 In this article we'll examine how you can use Python with Arcpy and Numpy to create a list of unique attribute values from a field. A list provides the opportunity to use and manage the results of a list function in a variety of ways. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Latest version. Here's a little function for exporting an attribute table from ArcGIS to a CSV file. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. The repair tool on this page is for machines running Windows only. da cursors (arcpy. The workspace environment must be set first before using several of the List functions, including ListDatasets, ListFeatureClasses, ListFiles, ListRasters, ListTables, and ListWorkspaces. GetMessages(), you will only get the messages from the second tool. Point() and arcpy. In the ArcGIS Image Analyst module, several new ArcPy functions are available for creating raster objects that support multidimensional data. Tomaro can pick up a project at any stage of its conception. Syntax ListFeatureClasses ({wild_card}, {feature_type}, {feature_dataset}). Using Python, this book will guide you from basic Python scripting to advanced ArcPy script tools. A collection of script tools to supplement Spatial Analyst Tools. dataDrivenPages. GetMessages() returns the messages from the last geoprocessing tool. The following are code examples for showing how to use arcpy. Most geoprocessing tools include both required and optional arguments. import arcpy #Set. An optional pair of SQL prefix and postfix clauses organized in a list or tuple. In both cases the code in the if statement is never executed even if the cursor contains no rows. dataDrivenPages. Describe() "Dataset type" property will return any of these: However, when I use arcpy. As I write this I have a few ideas but none would be easily implemented or be perfect – using knowledge of the existing points locations, the max points that could fit in the polygon with the given min distance and statistical variance in the spread of the given number of points against the area and min distance. Fields set as required are permanent and you will not be able to delete them with future processing. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Its goal is to create the cornerstone for a useful and productive way to perform geographic data analysis, data conversion, data management, and map automation with Python. If you want to use arcpy directly because of the builtin methods, you need the contents of the 'shape' fields using [email protected]' rather than just extracting the X and Y coordinates as in the previous example. The function takes two arguments, these are a file-path to the input feature class or table and a file-path for the output CSV file (see example down further). The field name here is "Stand". The Python Discord. The example scripts work -- they've been tested, insofar as possible -- and some of them are even useful in real life. This was done on purpose to keep the cost of production low and to allow users to quickly get an answer to their Arcpy questions. UpdateCursor() help page outlines what the None does in the syntax section. • Worked with the water resources team led by Dr. An SQL prefix clause is positioned in the first position and will be inserted between the SELECT keyword and the SELECT COLUMN LIST. Arcpy is a module, which contains the geoprocessing commands that can be used in a Python script. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Greg's connections. To allow for deletion at a later time set the field to non-required (the default). ListLayers always returns a Python list object even if only one layer is returned. They are extracted from open source Python projects. 004", "", "OBJECTID OBJECTID VISIBLE NONE;Shape Shape VISIBLE NONE;Id Id VISIBLE NONE;pow pow VISIBLE NONE;Shape_Length Shape_Length VISIBLE NONE;Shape_Area Shape_Area VISIBLE NONE;Shape_length Shape_length VISIBLE NONE;Shape_area Shape_area VISIBLE NONE;tempo tempo VISIBLE NONE"). ArcPy and ArcGIS - Geospatial Analysis with Python - Silas Toms Summary. FWIW, I've often found arcpy's definition of "dataset" a little confusing. Ensemble methods are non-parametric models that generates independent predictive models (weak learners) then averaging the results to provide a prediction. workspace = "C:/data/Montgomery. Delete_management("S elCntyLyr") del row, srCursor I run into the same problem of having the cursor at the bottom at "none" so would I have to add/substitute the following code, or is there an easier way? arcpy. Use this function to calculate the variance from the entire population. Point values with outer rings ordered clockwise and inner rings/holes, order counter-clockwise. 1, and I was able to get that to function with significant reworking as it has different attributes, signature, etc. Wildcards can be skipped in the scripting syntax simply by passing an empty string (""), an asterisk (*), or entering wildcard=None, or nothing at all if it is the last optional parameter in the syntax. If any of the inputs are point, the Output Type can only be point. Reviewing and testing spatial and non-spatial techniques, I am exploring factors which influence the rural crashes severity specially those one that may lead fatalities. My program works for one element of my for loop, but once it iterates to the next element in the list, it returns a nonetype to the rest of the elements in my list. •Avoid writing to FGDB data types or GRID raster data types. As I write this I have a few ideas but none would be easily implemented or be perfect – using knowledge of the existing points locations, the max points that could fit in the polygon with the given min distance and statistical variance in the spread of the given number of points against the area and min distance. prn extension. def fc_shapes (in_fc, as_array = True): """Derive, arcpy geometry objects from a featureClass searchcursor. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. This course uses Python 3. The example scripts work -- they've been tested, insofar as possible -- and some of them are even useful in real life. Get a List of Unique Attribute Values using Arcpy written by Eric Pimpler September 12, 2017 In this article we'll examine how you can use Python with Arcpy and Numpy to create a list of unique attribute values from a field. The returned value of a non-tool function can be varied—anything from strings to geoprocessing objects. import arcpy import os arcpy. import arcpy from arcpy import env env. The polygon consists of two parts, represented as the arcpy. CalculateField_management(). They are extracted from open source Python projects. 6, provides many flexible ways to visit all the elements of one or more arrays in a systematic fashion. 4 OR ArcGIS Server 10. SearchCursor, arcpy. Beginning GIS Programming Using ArcGIS 10. Arcpy is a module, which contains the geoprocessing commands that can be used in a Python script. WOW thanks a lot!! It is working perfectly. In Python, geoprocessing tools are available as ArcPy functions. The field name here is "Stand". InsertCursor) were introduced with ArcGIS 10. Delete_management("S elCntyLyr") del row, srCursor I run into the same problem of having the cursor at the bottom at "none" so would I have to add/substitute the following code, or is there an easier way? arcpy. if cursor == None: #Do something. Field names that cannot be supported directly as a property, such as qualified field names that include periods, can be accessed using the setValue and getValue methods. 1 to provide significantly faster performance over the previously existing set of cursor functions (arcpy. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. sample arcpy and Python geoprocessing tools. Use this function to calculate the variance from the entire population. ListDatasets() on a workspace with a bunch of tables and a single feature dataset, only the feature dataset is returned. UpdateCursor, and arcpy. The returned value of a non-tool function can be varied—anything from strings to geoprocessing objects. InsertCursor). If any of the inputs are point, the Output Type can only be point. join (arcpy. I think the problem is that I am. Reviewing and testing spatial and non-spatial techniques, I am exploring factors which influence the rural crashes severity specially those one that may lead fatalities. mxd") show_selection_symbology Boolean for pageNum in range(1, mxd. The following are code examples for showing how to use arcpy. workspace = "C:/data/Montgomery. 1 to provide significantly faster performance over the previously existing set of cursor functions (arcpy. Field names that cannot be supported directly as a property, such as qualified field names that include periods, can be accessed using the setValue and getValue methods. Join GitHub today. Latest version. ListLayers(mxd)[0]). 7) I need to check if any empty fields exist in featureclass fields in a gdb. The workspace environment must be set first before using several of the List functions, including ListDatasets, ListFeatureClasses, ListFiles, ListRasters, ListTables, and ListWorkspaces. da cursors (arcpy. If you want to use arcpy directly because of the builtin methods, you need the contents of the 'shape' fields using [email protected]' rather than just extracting the X and Y coordinates as in the previous example. Oftentimes there are cases where there are many optional arguments that don't need to be specified. If one of the inputs is of type line and none are points, the output can be line or point. 2; Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes; Filename, size arcpy_metadata-0. Files for arcpy_metadata, version 0. SQL postfix supports None, ORDER BY, and GROUP BY. for fc in fc_list: with arcpy. Lists are a versatile Python type and provide a number of methods (append, count, extend, index, insert, pop, remove, reverse, and sort) that can be used to manipulate and extract information. Please open this page on a compatible device. The Python Discord. During the recent work, I was involved in a project regarding fixing broken python scripts written long time ago. Delete_management("A llCntyLyr") arcpy. Get a List of Unique Attribute Values using Arcpy written by Eric Pimpler September 12, 2017 In this article we’ll examine how you can use Python with Arcpy and Numpy to create a list of unique attribute values from a field. ListLayers(mxd): #Use Get Count to return a Result containing the number of rows in the layer. They are extracted from open source Python projects. The following are code examples for showing how to use arcpy. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. gdb" arcpy. Greg has 16 jobs listed on their profile. An SQL prefix clause is positioned in the first position and will be inserted between the SELECT keyword and the SELECT COLUMN LIST. Non-Windows OS Detected. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. MakeFeatureLayer_management(dwa_poligony, Output, "tempo>0. Esri's GIS (geographic information systems) mapping software helps you understand and visualize data to make decisions based on the best information and analysis. The following example uses two ArcPy functions, GetParameterAsText to receive an input argument, and Exists to determine whether the input exists. GetMessages(), you will only get the messages from the second tool. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Greg’s connections. PointGeometry (arcpy. Point() and arcpy. ArcPy functions in the Image Analyst module. If any of the inputs are point, the Output Type can only be point. SQL prefix supports None, DISTINCT, and TOP. My morning starts great because of you. Used Python and Arcpy to develop tools to analyze changes in vector data. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. It is possible that there might be layers in a map document or layer file that have the same name. The original cursors are provided only for continuing. A call to next after the last row in the result set has been retrieved returns None, which is a Python data type that acts here as a placeholder. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. A collection of script tools to supplement Spatial Analyst Tools. Mask None's in integer fields with different values using a dictionary. if cursor == None: #Do something. The function arcpy. Employing ArcPy and. for Statements¶. if cursor == None: #Do something. import arcpy fc = "c:/data/base. SearchCursor, arcpy. FWIW, I've often found arcpy's definition of "dataset" a little confusing. The biggest key is to ensure that your (non-ESRI) python environment is similar enough to Esri's shipped environment that arcpy will import and run properly. ListFeatureClasses() provides a list of all the feature classes in the current workspace (which you can get or set using arcpy. It is also a valuable book for Python programmers who want to understand how to automate geospatial analyses. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. searchcursor(FC, query). They are extracted from open source Python projects. However, every star in the universe has some kind of angular mo. Welcome to NASA's EOSDIS. ArcPy and ArcGIS – Geospatial Analysis with Python - Silas Toms Summary. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Last released: Oct 8, 2019 Python metadata editing classes for ArcGIS feature. AddMessage is not a geoprocessing tool, so it will have no effects on GetMessages. Posts about ArcPy written by clubdebambos. I have an attribute table looks like this How do I convert Nulls into 0? I've tried to set this table non nullable type but got this: while the official doc says this: At least one of them is w. , lyr = arcpy. Used Python and Arcpy to develop tools to analyze changes in vector data. View examples of using Calculate Field Usage Python expressions can be created using properties from the geometry object ( type , extent , centroid , firstPoint , lastPoint , area , length , isMultipart , and partCount ). For a scripting need, I would advise Javascript or Python. Oftentimes there are cases where there are many optional arguments that don't need to be specified. My program works for one element of my for loop, but once it iterates to the next element in the list, it returns a nonetype to the rest of the elements in my list. Get a List of Unique Attribute Values using Arcpy written by Eric Pimpler September 12, 2017 In this article we'll examine how you can use Python with Arcpy and Numpy to create a list of unique attribute values from a field. It is stored within or alongside the geodatabase. import arcpy fc = "c:/data/base. Category: ArcPy Building concave hulls (alpha shapes) with PyQt, shapely, and arcpy In the previous post , I have shared some information about how to set up PyQt development environment for ArcGIS Pro Python developers. The repair tool on this page is for machines running Windows only. gdb" datasets = arcpy. gdb" arcpy. 3 kB) File type Wheel Python version py2 Upload date Sep 6, 2017 Hashes View hashes. UpdateCursor(fc, fields) as cursor: for row in cursor: If the 'MODEL' attribute has a None (NULL) or empty string value then print the feature class name to the screen. Remove Holes From Polygon FeatureClass Using ArcPy Since the introduction of ArcPy, it became easier to manipulate Geometry using python. gdb/roads" field = "StreetName" cursor = arcpy. 'NoneType' object is not iterable from Python Scripting for Geoprocessing Workflow exercise? Non-electric Laser. Delete_management("A llCntyLyr") arcpy. The SQL prefix clause is most commonly used for clauses such as DISTINCT or ALL. You will also notice that this book is much shorter than the original How do I do that in ArcGIS/Manifold, and without illustrations. If Esri wants to claim that Point is not a geometry class so it can't support an empty point, fine, but then arcpy. import arcpy fc = "c:/data/base. My morning starts great because of you. A list provides the opportunity to use and manage the results of a list function in a variety of ways. import arcpy #Set. In his supercommentary to Rashi Genesis 7:2, R. MapDocument(r"C:\Project\ParcelAtlas. arcgis python module collection. If one of the inputs is of type line and none are points, the output can be line or point. if cursor == None: #Do something. Dean Djokic to implement models and Python (ArcPy and ArcGIS API for Python) scripts for Arc Hydro, an ArcGIS extension for water resources. Used Python and Arcpy to develop tools to analyze changes in vector data. Please open this page on a compatible device. The arcpy module is included with the installation of Esri ArcMap Desktop and thus not a free library of commands. ListRasters() returns None, that’s your problem. InsertCursor) were introduced with ArcGIS 10. SearchCursor, arcpy. I know that it is empty because the query failsi. UpdateCursor, and arcpy. 2; Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes; Filename, size arcpy_metadata-0. Greg has 16 jobs listed on their profile. In both cases the code in the if statement is never executed even if the cursor contains no rows. Reviewing and testing spatial and non-spatial techniques, I am exploring factors which influence the rural crashes severity specially those one that may lead fatalities. ListDatasets() on a workspace with a bunch of tables and a single feature dataset, only the feature dataset is returned. In Python, geoprocessing tools are available as ArcPy functions. None is Python for Null - it does/passes nothing. Describe() "Dataset type" property will return any of these: However, when I use arcpy. They are extracted from open source Python projects. arcpy-metadata 0. Remove Holes From Polygon FeatureClass Using ArcPy Since the introduction of ArcPy, it became easier to manipulate Geometry using python. Get a List of Unique Attribute Values using Arcpy written by Eric Pimpler September 12, 2017 In this article we'll examine how you can use Python with Arcpy and Numpy to create a list of unique attribute values from a field. It is possible that there might be layers in a map document or layer file that have the same name. InsertCursor). To estimate the variance from a sample, the variance() function is usually a better choice. In the ArcGIS Image Analyst module, several new ArcPy functions are available for creating raster objects that support multidimensional data. This week, however, I had to implement a facet of arcpy that I had not yet had the opportunity to utilise - the data access module. Esri's GIS (geographic information systems) mapping software helps you understand and visualize data to make decisions based on the best information and analysis. It seems an easy task, but I can't figure out how to check if the searchcursor object is empty. In his supercommentary to Rashi Genesis 7:2, R. I know that it is empty because the query failsi. (ArcGIS Desktop 10. You can set the length of a line feature within ArcMap. •Avoid writing to FGDB data types or GRID raster data types. This page introduces some basic ways to use the object for computations on arrays in Python, then concludes with how one can accelerate the inner loop in Cython. VBA map generation using arcpy. Point(None) should throw exceptions instead of returning POINT (0 0). A collection of script tools to supplement Spatial Analyst Tools. SQL prefix supports None, DISTINCT, and TOP. Arcpy is a module, which contains the geoprocessing commands that can be used in a Python script. Removed non-native bullfrogs and trout from lakes and streams to restore habitat for native amphibians and reptiles. Delete_management("S elCntyLyr") del row, srCursor I run into the same problem of having the cursor at the bottom at "none" so would I have to add/substitute the following code, or is there an easier way? arcpy. 6, provides many flexible ways to visit all the elements of one or more arrays in a systematic fashion. ArcPy data access function for converting a feature class to a NumPy structured array. When using the Python window inside of ArcMap the module is automatically loaded, will be discussed in a future module. This week, however, I had to implement a facet of arcpy that I had not yet had the opportunity to utilise – the data access module. Our field well can now be navigated using just a keyboard and interacts well with screen readers. ArcPy data access function for converting a feature class to a NumPy structured array. Oftentimes there are cases where there are many optional arguments that don't need to be specified. 004", "", "OBJECTID OBJECTID VISIBLE NONE;Shape Shape VISIBLE NONE;Id Id VISIBLE NONE;pow pow VISIBLE NONE;Shape_Length Shape_Length VISIBLE NONE;Shape_Area Shape_Area VISIBLE NONE;Shape_length Shape_length VISIBLE NONE;Shape_area Shape_area VISIBLE NONE;tempo tempo VISIBLE NONE"). This week, however, I had to implement a facet of arcpy that I had not yet had the opportunity to utilise - the data access module. (ArcGIS Desktop 10. Tool functions will always return a Result object and provide geoprocessing messages support. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a key core capability in NASA’s Earth Science Data Systems Program for archiving and distributing Earth science data from multiple missions to users. MapDocument(r"C:\Project\ParcelAtlas. import arcpy fc = "c:/data/base. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Using SearchCursor with a for loop. 2; Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes; Filename, size arcpy_metadata-. prn extension. This in turn consists of sequences of arcpy. If any of the inputs are point, the Output Type can only be point. Python Map Automation – Beyond the Basics of arcpy. Our field well can now be navigated using just a keyboard and interacts well with screen readers. The function arcpy. Last released: Oct 8, 2019 Python metadata editing classes for ArcGIS feature. – poke Aug 27 '14 at 17:28 Okay thanks so much. UpdateCursor, and arcpy. The Row object dynamically support field names from the data source as read/write properties. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Greg's connections. News about the dynamic, interpreted, interactive, object-oriented, extensible programming language Python. During the recent work, I was involved in a project regarding fixing broken python scripts written long time ago. ArcPy: Create Convex Hull polygons from features of various geometry type optionally grouping input features - create_convex_hull. When using the Python window inside of ArcMap the module is automatically loaded, will be discussed in a future module. The polygon consists of two parts, represented as the arcpy. GetParameterAsText(1) # Describe the input (need to test the dataset and data types) desc = arcpy. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Dean Djokic to implement models and Python (ArcPy and ArcGIS API for Python) scripts for Arc Hydro, an ArcGIS extension for water resources. da cursors (arcpy. Our field well can now be navigated using just a keyboard and interacts well with screen readers. Reading User Inputs Commonly, a script will need some input from the user in order to run, and when creating a script, parameters can be defined to specify what information will be entered by the user. dataDrivenPages. Point() and arcpy. for fc in fc_list: with arcpy. Set Subtype Field Example (Python Window) The following Python window script demonstrates how to use the SetSubtypeField function in immediate mode. Point values with outer rings ordered clockwise and inner rings/holes, order counter-clockwise. A list provides the opportunity to use and manage the results of a list function in a variety of ways. In the ArcGIS Image Analyst module, several new ArcPy functions are available for creating raster objects that support multidimensional data. A collection of script tools to supplement Spatial Analyst Tools. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. The function takes two arguments, these are a file-path to the input feature class or table and a file-path for the output CSV file (see example down further). SearchCursor, arcpy. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Rather than always iterating over an arithmetic progression of numbers (like in Pascal), or giving the user the ability to define both the iteration step and halting condition (as C), Python’s for statement iterates over the items of any sequence (a list or a string), in the order. Working with BLOB data at 10. In the ArcGIS Image Analyst module, several new ArcPy functions are available for creating raster objects that support multidimensional data. If you're using a Windows printer, use a. This course uses Python 3. Used Python and Arcpy to develop tools to analyze changes in vector data. workspace, ds, fc) print (path). GetParameterAsText(1) # Describe the input (need to test the dataset and data types) desc = arcpy. Using Arcpy with multiprocessing - Part 3 Posted on July 31, 2013 December 16, 2017 by StacyR in Arcpy , Parallelisation , Python The following post builds upon the script and methods developed in Part 1 and Part 2 , so read them first!. Remove Holes From Polygon FeatureClass Using ArcPy Since the introduction of ArcPy, it became easier to manipulate Geometry using python. The workspace environment must be set first before using several of the List functions, including ListDatasets, ListFeatureClasses, ListFiles, ListRasters, ListTables, and ListWorkspaces. Geometry objects that can expose some of the information about the geometries in the form of geoJSON and then do the rest on your own using json module: g = arcpy. In Python, geoprocessing tools are available as ArcPy functions. It is possible that there might be layers in a map document or layer file that have the same name. GetCount_management(). If both the true expression and optional false raster are integer, the output raster will be integer. ListLayers(mxd):). However, every star in the universe has some kind of angular mo. • Worked with the water resources team led by Dr. ListLayers(mxd)[0]). 1 to provide significantly faster performance over the previously existing set of cursor functions (arcpy. The field name here is "Stand". The following example uses two ArcPy functions, GetParameterAsText to receive an input argument, and Exists to determine whether the input exists. A call to next after the last row in the result set has been retrieved returns None, which is a Python data type that acts here as a placeholder. Inner and outer rings are separated by None, rather than a null point since a null point, unfortunately, has X and Y values of 0. Mordecha Yaffe: וטעם שאסור ללמוד תורה לגוי הוא מפני הערלה שבו ויש בו סוד שלא להכניס. , for lyr in arcpy. # Author: ESRI # Import system modules import arcpy from arcpy import env try: # Get user-supplied input and output arguments inTable = arcpy. Describe() "Dataset type" property will return any of these: However, when I use arcpy. The for statement in Python differs a bit from what you may be used to in C or Pascal. Tool functions will always return a Result object and provide geoprocessing messages support. In his supercommentary to Rashi Genesis 7:2, R.